Progress on PPR Control and Eradication Strategy

The overarching PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (PPR GCES) is based on four stages that combine decreasing levels of epidemiological risk with increasing levels of prevention and control. At Stage 1 the epidemiological situation is assessed. At Stage 2, control activities including vaccination are implemented. PPR is eradicated at Stage 3. And at Stage 4 vaccination must be suspended; the country must provide evidence that no virus is circulating at zonal or national level and that it is ready to apply for official OIE PPR-free status.

Progressive PPR control and eradication – the four stages of the PPR GCES

The PPR GEP encompasses a multi-country, multi-stage sequential process comprising epidemiological and socio-economic assessments, control and eradication of PPR virus and maintenance of PPR virus freedom. Implementation requires the concerted delivery of preparedness plans, capacity building, and stakeholder awareness and engagement, as well as establishing appropriate legal frameworks.

Regardless of the stage in which a country initially places itself, sufficient capacity should be achieved relative to five key elements so that the country can move with confidence to the next stage of control and eradication. These five technical elements are:

  • PPR diagnosis system
  • PPR surveillance system
  • PPR prevention and control system
  • Legal framework for PPR prevention and control system
  • Stakeholders’ involvement in PPR prevention and control.

The overall cost of the first five-year PPR global eradication programme (PPR GEP / 2017 – 2021) is estimated at USD 996 million. This includes the cost for the procurement of vaccines and their proper administration to 1.5 billion sheep and goats and post vaccination evaluation, which comprises more than 70 per cent of this estimate. About 9 per cent of the budget is allocated to the control of other prioritized small ruminant diseases, 7 per cent to coordination and management of PPR control and eradication, and 5 per cent to surveillance and assessment. The remaining activities to finance include the strengthening of laboratory and of national veterinary services, the organization of regional roadmap meetings, as well as strategy, advocacy and communication.

Since the PPR GEP launch in October 2016, by FAO and OIE, the following have been completed:

  1. First round of regional consultations (PPR Roadmap Meetings) held in all nine regions. These meetings provided the opportunity to: (i) present the PPR GCES and its tools in a detailed manner; ii) carry out a first self-assessment of each country’s situation regarding PPR and the capacity of its VS to control the disease; (iii) agree countries’ vision toward PPR eradication; (iv) preliminary prioritize other small ruminant diseases that might be controlled in tandem; and, (vi) set-up the governance structure to oversee the implementation of PPR control activities in the region. The 2nd round of meetings has been initiated in 4 regions: Central Asia, Central Africa, the Middle East and South Asia.
  2. 56 out of the 76 target countries received support to develop their PPR national strategic plans that detailed the steps for assessing, controlling, and eradicating PPR virus, and maintaining PPR virus freedom.  The effort included identification of the resources required and committed by national authorities to implement their plan.
  3. Eight out of the nine regional grouping of countries were supported to draft their PPR regional approach and plans.
  4. A PPR Advisory Committee and Global Research and Expertise Network on PPR (PPR GREN) were launched in June 2017 and April 2018, respectively.
  5. Assistance has been provided to recent PPR infected countries such as Liberia, Mongolia, Sierra Leone and Burundi.
  6. PPR vaccination campaigns (covering > 800 million sheep and goats) are ongoing or planned in several countries through government and partner funding.
  7. A Joint PPR Resource Mobilization and Marketing Strategy (RMMS) was developed with the support of FAO (TCR, TCE, OCC) and the OIE World Animal Health and Welfare Fund Unit. The RMMS includes a marketing narrative, an analysis of potential funding sources and a detailed action plan. The marketing narrative is a human centered approach outlining that ending PPR will greatly contribute to ending rural poverty, ensuring food security and to strengthening resilience (SDG1 and SDG2). The subsequent market analysis identifies potential resource partners at global, regional and national levels as well as strategic alliances. Domestic resources from affected countries will represent a crucial funding source. The action plan sets out short-, medium- and long-term actions to engage stakeholders and budgetary decision-makers effectively to achieve the campaign’s overall goal.
  8. Two meetings were organized to discuss topics related to PPR vaccines availability and quality control; OIE standards on PPR vaccines; new generation of PPR vaccines and thermostable PPR vaccines.  The first meeting organized in collaboration with the Veterinary Services of Morocco and MCI-Santé animale took place in Mohammedia-Casablanca in April 2017. The Thermo-tolerant PPR vaccine workshop organized with GALVmed’s financial support took place in December 2017 in Rome.

PPR control and eradication starts with commitment and investment at national level. However, support is needed from regional and international partners in building the capacity of national, regional and eco-regional institutions, and bringing about a coordinated, sustained and harmonized approach, necessary for the eradication of the disease. A globally concerted effort is now required to support both national and regional actions plans and the strengthening of Veterinary Services.

On 10 October 2017, during a high-level meeting between the European Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development and the Directors General of FAO and OIE, the European Union confirmed its intention to join FAO and the OIE in the PPR global eradication campaign. The three organizations determined to organize a global PPR Global Conference in Brussels with the aim of rallying all stakeholders behind the PPR GEP and mobilizing the additional support required for the eradication of the disease by 2030.

The conference was held as a half-day event on 6-7 September 2018. It  provided a platform for high-level political interventions, for representatives from affected and at risk countries and regions to set forth their experiences, challenges, and commitments, and for resource partners to express their pledges for support.

A Stakeholder Forum was organized the day before the Global Conference, involving pastoralists, traders, representatives of civil society organizations, non-governmental organizations, women associations, parliamentarians and other stakeholders. This forum provided the opportunity to exchange views, collect first-hand testimonies on the serious impact of PPR and issue a final statement to be delivered during the Conference by stakeholder representatives.

Regions

Number of target countries

Number of countries in the Roadmap

PPR Stages in May 2018

Comments

1

2

3

4

ASEAN + China, Mongolia & Timor Leste

10

7

3

1

 

1

PPR-free status for Philippines, Singapore & Thailand.Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar & Brunei are not yet in the Roadmap

ECCAS

8

8

8

 

 

 

 

ECOWAS

15

15

12

3

 

 

 

IGAD/EAC

11

10

8

2

 

 

Rwanda not yet in the Roadmap

SADC

12

9

7

2

 

 

PPR-free status for Botswana, Madagascar, Mauritius, South Africa & Swaziland .  PPR-free zone in Namibia. Comoros & Lesotho not yet in the Roadmap

AMU

5

5

2

3

 

 

 

ECO

10

10

7

2

1

 

Thrace (Turkey) in Stage 4

Middle East

13

12

3

8

1

 

Oman not yet in the Roadmap

SAARC

8

8

2

6

 

 

 

Total

84

52

27

2

1